IAS UPSC Prelims Exam: GS Modern History of India: Modern History NCERT Questions: Colonialism and the Countryside

Following Multiple Choice Questions of Modern Indian History would help students in understanding the nature of questions asked in IAS Prelims Exam.

Q1. Consider the following statements regarding the early years of the East India Company establishment in India:
I. The colonial rule was first established in The Bengal.
II. In the beginning, the earliest attempts were made to reorder rural society and establish a new regime of land rights and a new revenue system.
III. The Permanent Settlement had come into operation in 1793. The East India Company had fixed the revenue that each zamindar had to pay.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
A. Only I
B. I and II
C. I and III
D. All of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: The English East India Company (E.I.C.) established its raj in the countryside, implemented its revenue policies, these policies meant to different sections of people, and how they changed everyday lives. The colonial rule was first established in The Bengal. In the beginning, the earliest attempts were made to reorder rural society and establish a new regime of land rights and a new revenue system.

Q2. Consider the following statements regarding after the establishment of British East India Company in Bengal:
I. In 1797 there was an auction in Burdwan (present day Bardhaman) during which A number of mahals (estates) held by the Raja of Burdwan were being sold.
II. The Permanent Settlement had come into operation in 1793.
III. The estates of those who failed to pay were to be auctioned to recover the revenue.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
A. Only I
B. I and II
C. I and III
D. All of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: The East India Company had fixed the revenue that each zamindar had to pay. The estates of those who failed to pay were to be auctioned to recover the revenue. Since the raja had accumulated huge arrears, his estates had been put up for auction.

Q3. Consider the following statements regarding the problem of unpaid revenue:
I. In introducing the Permanent Settlement, British officials hoped to resolve the problems they had been facing since the conquest of Bengal.
II. By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural output.
III. Officials felt that agriculture, trade and the revenue resources of the state could all be developed by encouraging investment in agriculture.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
A. Only I
B. I and II
C. I and III
D. All of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: The estates of the Burdwan raj were not the only ones sold during the closing years of the eighteenth century. Over 75 per cent of the zamindaris changed hands after the Permanent Settlement. In introducing the Permanent Settlement, British officials hoped to resolve the problems they had been facing since the conquest of Bengal. By the 1770s, the rural economy in Bengal was in crisis, with recurrent famines and declining agricultural output. Officials felt that agriculture, trade and the revenue resources of the state could all be developed by encouraging investment in agriculture. This could be done by securing rights of property and permanently fixing the rates of revenue demand.

Q4. Who was the Governor General of Bengal when the Permanent Settlement was introducing in 1793?
A. Warren Hastings
B. The Charles Cornwallis
C. The Lord Minto
D. The Lord Auckland

Answer: B

Explanation: Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805), was the commander of the British forces during the American War of Independence and the Governor General of Bengal when the Permanent Settlement was introduced there in 1793.

Q5. Consider the following statements regarding the failure of revenue payment by zamindars:
I. Initially the company made very high initial demand because if the demand was fixed for all time to come, the Company would never be able to claim a share of increased income from land when prices rose and cultivation expanded.
II. The high demand was imposed in the 1790s, a time when the prices of agricultural produce were depressed, making it difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the zamindar.
III. The revenue was invariable, regardless of the harvest, and had to be paid punctually. In fact, according to the Sunset Law, if payment did not come in by sunset of the specified date, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
A. Only I
B. I and II
C. I and III
D. All of the above

Answer: D

Explanation: Company officials felt that a fixed revenue demand would give zamindars a sense of security and, assured of returns on their investment, encourage them to improve their estates. In the early decades after the Permanent Settlement, however, zamindars regularly failed to pay the revenue demand and unpaid balances accumulated.

Q6. Which of the following statement is incorrect?
A. Taluqdar literally means “one who holds a taluq” or a connection which came to refer to a territorial unit.
B. Raja (literally king) was a term that was often used to designate powerful zamindars.
C. Ryots in Bengal always cultivate the land directly, but never leased it out to under-ryots.
D. In Francis Buchanan’s survey of the Dinajpur district in North Bengal there is a vivid description of the class of rich peasants known as jotedars.

Answer: C

Explanation: While many zamindars were facing a crisis at the end of the eighteenth century, a group of rich peasants were consolidating their position in the villages. In Francis Buchanan’s survey of the Dinajpur district in North Bengal we have a vivid description of this class of rich peasants known as jotedars. By the early nineteenth century, jotedars had acquired vast areas of land – sometimes as much as several thousand acres.

Q7. When was the East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of England?
A. 1600
B. 1602
C. 1603
D. 1605

Answer. A

Explanation: In the year 1600, the East India Company got permit to trade in India from the ruler of England.

Q8. Who was the ruler of England at the time when the East India Company got permission to trade with India?
A. Anne
B. Victoria
C. Queen Elizabeth I
D. George I

Answer. C

Explanation: Queen Elizabeth I was the ruler of England when the East India Company Got permission to trade with India.

Q9. After acquiring the royal charter, the East India Company could:
A. venture across the ocean
B. buy goods at cheap price and sell at higher price
C. could carry their business to European countries
D. All of the abobe

Answer. D

Explanation: The royal charter that granted by the Queen Elizabeth I to the East India Company, permitted them to to do their business of buying cheaper goods from the east and sell them to the European countries.

Q10. Who had discovered the sea route from the west coast of Africa to India?
A. British East India Company
B. Columbus
C. Vasco Da Gama
D. Sir Walter Raleigh

Answer. C

Explanation: Before the British East India Company, Vasco Da Gama, a Portuguese explorer already had established their base in Goa.

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